W. Norton Grubb
The problem with ALL of these, including several papers at the conference, is (1) this is hardly a new idea; (2) they don't wrestle with WHY civic and moral purposes have lapsed. According to many observers - David Labaraee is one historian, and I have written about this in The Education Gospel: The Economic Value of Schooling - the rise of vocational purposes (or professional purposes, at the postsecondary level) is responsible, though there are many other elements that I review in my book (pp. 69 - 72). Without confronting why civic purposes have declined, there is no point is restating their importance one more time, and no point at all that I can see to establishing legal theories built upon the centrality of civic purposes. There are several ways out of this dilemma - mine has been to call for various attempts to integrate civic and occupational purposes - but any real solution has to start by confronting the problem rather than ignoring it.